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The Anatomy of Psychotherapy. Lawrence Friedman. Toward an integrated cognitive science: present efforts, future prospects -- Perceiving the world -- Mental imagery: a figment of the imagination? There are no reviews yet. Be the first one to write a review. Books for People with Print Disabilities. Internet Archive Books. O ne spring morning in Tucson, Arizona, in , an unknown philosopher named David Chalmers got up to give a talk on consciousness , by which he meant the feeling of being inside your head, looking out — or, to use the kind of language that might give a neuroscientist an aneurysm, of having a soul.
The scholars gathered at the University of Arizona — for what would later go down as a landmark conference on the subject — knew they were doing something edgy: in many quarters, consciousness was still taboo, too weird and new agey to take seriously, and some of the scientists in the audience were risking their reputations by attending.
The brain, Chalmers began by pointing out, poses all sorts of problems to keep scientists busy. How do we learn, store memories, or perceive things? How do you know to jerk your hand away from scalding water, or hear your name spoken across the room at a noisy party? There was only one truly hard problem of consciousness, Chalmers said. And how does the brain manage it? How could the 1. The Hard Problem! It defined the field. Meanwhile, the field of artificial intelligence — which focuses on recreating the abilities of the human brain, rather than on what it feels like to be one — has advanced stupendously.
But how come all that was accompanied by an agonising flash of pain? And what is pain, anyway? Questions like these, which straddle the border between science and philosophy, make some experts openly angry. On the other hand, in recent years, a handful of neuroscientists have come to believe that it may finally be about to be solved — but only if we are willing to accept the profoundly unsettling conclusion that computers or the internet might soon become conscious, too. Speaking to the Daily Mail, Stoppard also clarified a potential misinterpretation of the title.
God created souls, and put them into people. B y the time Chalmers delivered his speech in Tucson, science had been vigorously attempting to ignore the problem of consciousness for a long time.
On the other hand, this most certain and familiar of phenomena obeys none of the usual rules of science.